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ESL 91 Internet Collaboration
Student Projects


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Students in ESL 91 have chosen to study a number of different focus disciplines. As part of their focus discipline study, students have done research on the Internet and shared resources and their responses to these resources through the class e-mail discussion list CBESL.

The focus disciplines studied in this course are: Diet and Nutrition, Sociology, Computer Science, Business, Psychology, Biology, and Physical Anthropology.


All work on this web page is copyrighted by the student authors
and may not be reproduced without their permission

© 1999--ESL 91


Focus Discipline: Diet and Nutrition

Topic: The reading describes the cases of two young women, Deborah and Lisa. How were their cases similar? How were they different? What factors led Deborah to developing anorexia and Lisa to developing bulimia?

What we eat is very important for our health. Unfortunately, a lot of people choose their diet incorrectly and in many cases end up being victims of an eating disorder. Those psychiatric illnesses affect over five million Americans including Lisa, who developed bulimia nervosa at eighteen and Deborah, a sixteen-year-old anorexic. Two girls and two different illnesses, the similarities and differences as well as the social factors that played a part in each case will be described in this essay.

Deborah and Lisa were both concerned with fitting in and being liked and so developed strange eating habits. Both of them were slightly overweight when they began to diet. Deborah was told that she would never get a date if she didnít take off some weight. Obviously she took that seriously because she became obsessed with dieting and food. Almost every day she counted all consumed food calories, and limited her intake of liquids all in a fear of getting fat. Lisa, on the other hand, ate huge amounts of food and maintained her normal weight by forcing herself to vomit. These two young women didnít realize what kinds of consequences could follow their dieting.

First of all, the depression, shame and feeling of isolation disrupts families, interrupts schooling, damages a future filled with promises, and destroys relationships. WowÖ it sounds serious doesnít it? But, there are even more important issues such as medical problems. As anorexia progresses symptoms like: irregular heart rate, low blood pressure, frequent urination, lose of calcium from bones and cessation of menstruation may occur. Bulimics also damage their bodies by frequent binge eating and purging. The acid in vomit wears down the outer layer of the teeth. Purging may result in heart failure due to loss of vital minerals, such as potassium. These physical problems, which if not treated by a professional, may lead to death.

This is the main reason why Deborah and Lisaís families were very concerned about their health. No one could convince Deborah to stop dieting. She, like most anorexics, practically starved herself. Finally her doctor insisted that she be hospitalized and carefully watched for treatment of her illness. Lisaís parents and friendís didnít even know that she had a problem until she attempted suicide. Just like most bulimics, she ate and ate like there was no tomorrow. More importantly, she was not able to understand her own behavior and thought no one else would either. This reminds me of my friend Iwona. I never realized that she could be a bulimic. Iím still kind of confused about it but I think she might be one of them. Iwona always tries to lose weight; she talks about it constantly, but I always see her eating. All women do that, but she eats and eats and then she feels useless, depressed and guilty about it. Thatís what makes her different from other women. I know for a fact that sheís been abusing laxatives. I always thought that only forcing your self to vomit is being a bulimic, but now I know better.

We can ask ourselves a question "why would people starve themselves or vomit on purpose?" Deborah and Lisa and the rest of us wouldnít know the answer. Some evidence suggests that eating disorders may develop due to the inherited predispositions such as mood swings and depression. However, the media plays a big role in eating disorders. According to television, advertising, and fashion magazines, no women should weight more than 110 pounds. This is one of the main reasons why all of women start dieting. Perhaps they feel pushed into achieving and into living up to other peopleís standards. They can push themselves harder and harder since they donít know how else to define themselves as individuals. Most of them arenít usually heavy to begin with but during the vulnerable years, when everything seems like a matter of life and death, they donít see any other way to go.

In a society where thinness is equated with success and happiness nearly everybody has suffered at one time or another from issues of weight, body shape and self-image. Nobody realizes the consequences that could follow severe dieting and food obsession. We have to stop and think about the seriousness of eating disorders like anorexia and bulimia and perhaps help others before itís too late.

Malgorzata Wendolowicz
ESL 91
Fall, 1999

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Focus Discipline: Diet and Nutrition

Topic: The reading describes the cases of two young women, Deborah and Lisa. How were their cases similar? How were they different? What factors led Deborah to developing anorexia and Lisa to developing bulimia?

Anorexia nervosa and bulimia are two dangerous sicknesses that affect more young people in society because of the peer pressure. Females are the persons most affected by these two sicknesses. Deborah and Lisa are two young women that have hard problems with losing weight and they became persons with eating disorders.

Deborah was a young woman that suffered from anorexia nervosa. The first reason why she suffered from this eating disorder was because she wanted to get attention from boys, and she thought that by losing weight she would look pretty and cute enough for boys. Also one important reason why she became anorexic was because her father told her that she probably could not go out with a boy because of her weight.

After all this bad advice, she started to starve herself and to do strict exercise more frequently. Deborah started to lose a lot of weight and to have menstrual problems. However, nothing would stop her. She thought that it was not enough, that she still needed to lose more weight. What started only because of a joke about dating boys was becoming a serious problem for this 16-year-old girl. Her problem became more serious. She would not listen to anybody. Although her life was in danger, she would not stop dieting. Because of that she had to go to the hospital and even at the hospital she would not stop exercising .

On the other hand the 18-year-old Lisa suffered from another dangerous disease, bulimia nervosa. Lisa would eat an enormous amount of food, and then she would get rid of it by vomiting, also she started to exercise for more hours. She did not want to see that she had an eating disorder. One big reason why she developed this problem was because she wanted to lose weight even though she had a perfect body. Lisa even tried to commit suicide because of her depression, but she went to the hospital. At the hospital she received professional help to solve her eating disorder problem. Lisa joined a group of people who were suffering from bulimia too.

Anorexia nervosa is a sickness that makes people think they are fat even if it is not true. People stop eating, starve themselves and exercise more frequently. Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder that destroys body images, and a mental disorder may cause that. People become anorexic because of society's attitudes. Family factors play a big role in its development. In contrast, bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder where the person eats a lot and then throws up the food. They also exercise more frequently. Bulimia is very destructive and could cause heart damage because of the purging.

In general, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are two dangerous sicknesses that affect some people. The reason why this happens is because these people do not get the attention that they need and the support of the people around them.

Yasmin Nunez
ESL91
Fall, 1999

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Focus Discipline: Diet and Nutrition

Topic: The reading describes the cases of two young women, Deborah and Lisa. How were their cases similar? How were they different? What factors led Deborah to developing anorexia and Lisa to developing bulimia?

Correct diet is very important for our health. However, many young people choose their diet incorrectly for their needs because they desire to have ideal body shape. This may cause serious illness just like Deborah and Lisa who suffered from eating disorders such as bulimia and anorexia.

Deborah and Lisa began to diet because they wanted to look pretty. Her father had a big influence on Deborahís decision. He told her that she should lose some weight because she wouldnít get a date. He said that jokingly. After that joke she started her diet and exercised very hard. She wanted to see the faster result of her diet. Deborah became obsessed with food, but she starved herself. Every time she prepared her meals, she weighed and cut all the food in small equal pieces. Deborahís strange eating ritual is on an example of the psychiatric illness anorexia. In addition, people with anorexia think that they are overweight even when they are underweight.

In contrast to anorexics who starve themselves, bulimics like eighteen year old Lisa can eat huge amounts of food until they get a pain. Lisa could eat many times a day. This is a typical symptom of bulimia. The worst thing in that kind of illness is that the bulimic person could make himself vomit. In the future the bulimic might not be able to control vomiting and would lose many minerals from his/her body because of the vomiting. Bulimics like Lisa also feel lonely. She kept her secret from other people because she thought that nobody could understand her problem with her illness. Deborah and Lisa were both hospitalized but in many situations this is not enough. The patients also need psychiatric therapy to help them to be normal, healthy people.

We can see some similarity between Deborah, the anorexic and Lisa, the bulimic. First, they both were on a diet to get their beautiful body shape. Their bodies were destroyed because of the incorrect diet. For example, they both suffered from irregular menstrual periods from anemia. The difference between those two illnesses is that Deborah, an anorexic, could eat very small amounts of food in contrast to Lisa who could eat huge amounts of food and then make herself vomit.

In conclusion, both of these illnesses are very serious, not just because of the physical health but also because of the psychological problems. Society has a big influence on those people. The biggest percentage of the patients are young people with immature personalities, who are not strong enough to see the difference between diet and obsession with a beautiful body shape.

Agnieszka Sznel
ESL 91
Fall, 1999

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Focus Discipline: Diet and Nutrition

Topic: The reading describes the cases of two young women, Deborah and Lisa. How were their cases similar? How were they different? What factors led Deborah to developing anorexia and Lisa to developing bulimia?

Most people especially women want to have a perfect body. Anorexia and Bulimia are two diseases that are important to know about. These diseases can cause serious problems to women and men. However women don't know that they are putting their lives at risk by making strict diet and exercise.

Deborah and Lisa are two young girls who suffered anorexia and bulimia. Deborah became anorexic when she was sixteen years old. She became anorexic because of a simple joke that her father told her. The joke was that she would never get a date if she didn't take off some weight. But for Deborah that wasn't a joke because at that time, like all girls, she was interested in boys already. Deborah started to take care of her weight and be careful of what kind of food she was eating. She also did strict exercise. Nobody could convince Deborah that she was in real danger.

Like Deborah, Lisa started bulimia very young at 18 years old. Lisa started suffering bulimia when she decided to start a diet and did a lot of exercise to lose some weight. Lisa always ate a lot food in front of the people but she maintained a normal weight by vomiting. She caused herself to vomit all the food that she had already eaten. Lisa became depressed that she could not control herself by taking care of her weight and the food. She started feeling lonely and isolated and she attempted suicide.

Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder that causes a mental disorder and affects body image. The condition affects females more frequently usually in adolescence. Bulimia nervosa is described as an eating disorder too because the people eat a lot and then throw up the food that they ate. Bulimia is a companion with vomiting and purging and cause abnormal behavior.

Deborah and Lisa were normal girls and just because they obsessed with their weight they could have killed themselves. All girls and women have to be careful of what they do about trying to have a perfect body. Anorexia and Bulimia both need extreme care by a specialist doctor. With appropriate care of a doctor the person could stop suffering from these dangerous illnesses could kill them.

Jahaira Rodriguez.
ESL 91
Fall, 1999

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Focus Discipline: Diet and Nutrition

Topic: Write an essay in which you discuss how the family, the school, and/or the peer groups can either reinforce or counteract the influences of the mass media with regard to weight and self-image. Provide specific examples drawn from your personal experiences.

The family is a basic social institution that introduces children to society and prepares them for the future. By living in the family children learn basic social skills, such as communication and how to adapt to society. They learn, from their parents, to recognize whatís right and whatís wrong and they modify their behavior. Children are fully dependent on their parents. Therefore, the family has the power to either reinforce or counteract other influences, such as mass media.

Television and other media represent one of the most important influences on children and adolescents. Young people spend most of their leisure time (average is 4-5 hrs a day) in front of the television. The images presented on the screen are used to manipulate the young audience for simple marketing purposes. Looking at their idols, teenagers dream of being like them, talking like them or looking like them. We have streets full of Ricky Martins, Leonardo di Caprios, Britney Spears, who constantly remind young people to lose weight, be thin and beautiful, buy more products because people will like you and appreciate you. Overweight individuals are typically portrayed as lazy "couch potatoes" who donít have any friends, while thin women and pumped-up men are portrayed as successful, popular, sexy, and rich.

The family also teaches children, from their early years, that looks matter. Think of the three or four year old who is continuously praised for being "oh so cute". Those kids usually grow up with a superficial understanding of who they are. Unfortunately, in a lot of homes television plays the role of an "electronic babysitter" that shows children all kinds of unhealthy and fattening products. The way commercials present such products makes children think that this has to be something good. Children want to have whatever looks good on TV because this is something that everybody else has. Unfortunately, parents "fall" for "good looking" commercials as well. They go out and buy the products just because the commercial made a good impression on them. Parentsí behavior usually affects young peopleís opinions more then anything.

For children, television represents the real world and gives secret glimpses of teenage and adult behavior. Unhealthy attitudes learned from the media during childhood may be put into action during adolescence, with adverse consequences. Therefore, it is a parentís responsibility to explain to children and teenagers how to pick what is right for them and how to maintain a healthy diet and body. I remember working for an American family few years ago as a babysitter. I noticed how they were raising their daughter Catherine. She was constantly reminded to eat healthy food, exercise and dress well in order to look good. I thought that the little girl would not pay attention to what her parents were forcing her into, but when I saw her mother last week in tears I knew that something was wrong. She told me that Catherine developed an Obsessive Compulsive Disorder due to the fear of not being able to satisfy her family. She is a perfect example of the familyís role in reinforcing the media influence. Catherineís mother was always watching her weight and exercising in front of the TV, showing her little girl that this is what life is all about, what she should do in order to be like her "perfect" mom.

Diet advertisements are another media influence. On television, in magazines and newspapers, we are continually exposed to amazing "before" and "after" body images. It is virtually impossible to attain this look. But most young people watching these ads at home do not realize that. It is also almost impossible to avoid these advertisements, unless you commit yourself to a life without television. These ads are viewed during shows like Dawson's Creek and Melrose Place, which occupy the lives of teenagers.

It is very common for children and adolescents to compare themselves to people in magazines or movies, and this usually makes them feel self-conscious. If you want to compare yourself to others, you should look at the real people around you. They come in different shapes and sizes, and none of them are airbrushed or highlighted.

In todayís society where good looks, presented by media, are equated with success and happiness almost every person has suffered at one point or another from issues of weight and self-image. Unfortunately, family canít always counteract the influences of the mass media. They can just try to tell their children over and over again that it is what is inside that counts. But do they themselves believe in that? Do they give their children a good example?

Malgorzata Wendolowicz
ESL 91
Fall, 1999

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Focus Discipline: Diet and Nutrition

Topic: Write an essay in which you discuss how the family, the school, and/or the peer groups can either reinforce or counteract the influences of the mass media with regard to weight and self-image. Provide specific examples drawn from your personal experiences.

Cultural and mass media influence young people and their consideration of being beautiful and worthy in modern style. The main sources of that influence are mostly presented by fashion magazines and norms of cultural style. According to cultural style, women should be concerned about their weight and weight loss. Fashion magazines have the same messages about weight and body shape. That is why there is so much consideration of models appearance among young people. Because of this millions of young women attempt dangerous methods of weight control that often causes serious eating disorders. How far child could be influenced by family depends on his personal background and how he/she feels about themselves.

The family plays a main role in educating children about the importance of who they are not how they look. Being raised in a house where the parents are not weight conscious would not lead the teenager to believe that weight and appearance are very important. Each person needs to be accepted in the way she or he looks and needs to feel comfortable. That acceptance leads to happiness and self-satisfaction and all the goods lie inside of person, not outside.

I learned that philosophy in my parentís house. My mother spoke to my sisters and me about a healthy lifestyle. She also was making sure we eat meals 2-3 times a day, and having a healthy diet with varieties of vegetables and fruits because they contain vitamins and minerals. My mother used to say that it is not important how you look but who you are. "If you feel like eating more do it, your body needs it."

I have never felt uncomfortable about my appearance and weight. In my entire life I had different sizes of weight, sometimes I was overweight, however; it did not affect my feelings. After I gave birth to my son, I gained a lot of weight, about 30 pounds. Some of my friends used to say that when I was overweight I looked much older than before. Those remarks made me feel uncomfortable, but I was more concerned with my sonís health. I did not attempt to diet, however I eventually started exercising to improve my physical condition.

Not every family is the same, many teenage girls learned to diet by simply watching their mothers that are weight conscious. They also build their image of beauty on fashion magazines and movies, for example Beverly Hills 90210. These kinds of beauty pictures show unrealistic images of an "ideal" body shape. Most teenagers think that appearance and looking good means being thin and it is the most important part of being a woman. As the consequence, those women or girls started to starve themselves. The effect of starvation is eating disorder.

School is a second home. Children and teenagers spend a lot of time in school, which takes a role in the process of shaping the students vision of what is worthy in life. Generally school is a source of developing studentís potential knowledge and does not pay too much attention to studentís problems, for example, eating disorders etc. Furthermore teachers and school counselors should be more aware of any students with signs of eating disorder, because the earlier we treat the disorder, the more chances they have for recovery.

Being a teenager is not easy and there are many pressures that they face everyday. Eating disorders can be very much about control, so if they feel like everything around them is out of control they may develop an eating disorder. Its is important for families and schools to raise the teenager to be proud of who they are, not place any importance or their appearance.

Teresa Maryniak
ESL91
Fall, 1999

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Focus Discipline: Sociology

Topic: In your opinion, of the four agents of socialization discussed in the passage, which one is the most important to the child's development? Provide specific, detailed examples to support your opinion.

Experts say that there are four agents of socialization: Family, School, Peers and the Mass Media. Each of these agents has a different affect on the life of a child. Without these agents human beings wouldnít have understanding of their own race and planet. By socializing humans learn about each other, about their culture, language, tradition and principles.

Each agent influences a childís development a lot. The family is one of the most important influences that tends to provide affection, communication and relationship to the child. Family teaches the child how to behave in the environment and how to socialize with other people. From the time the child is born and grows, he or she has to depend on the family. The family is responsible for taking care of the child and looking out for its welfare. The family has to give the child affection that is important for him or for her because if the child has problems with something, he or she should tell the family. Sometimes the child doesnít have confidence in the family because he or she has bad experiences with his or her family, such as being mistreated or abused or being blamed for family problems. These experiences can make the child take the wrong way and behave badly toward other people. The child may put him or herself in problems or bad things such as drugs and gangs. It happens because the child doesnít have anyone who could tell him or her to change.

However, if the child receives good treatment from the family, his or her behavior should be better and keep him or her out of trouble. For example, my brothers and I have always received affection and good advice from our parents. Our parents usually tell us how we have to behave inside or outside of the house and not to put ourselves in any problems. Sometimes if one of us gets in trouble, my parents try to talk to us and make us understand whatís good and whatís bad for us.

In addition to the family, the peer group is an important influence in a childís development because after the child learns his or her culture, language and tradition from the family, the next step is society. The child must learn how to communicate with other people besides his or her family. Most importantly the child must learn how to socialize with other children who are the same age or older. If a child is quiet and shy, other children might make fun from him or her. A child must have friends to talk to and to play with, otherwise he or she will feel lonely. Besides not having friends and being friendly can also affect the child in adulthood. But the child will have to learn certain lessons in his or her childhood. For example, he or she has to know how to pick his or her friends and to be careful with whom he or she trusts because some children like to pick on other children who have a different country, culture and language.

The child has to behave differently with the peer group because he or she feels that is necessary to make some changes such as how to speak and how to express him or herself because he or she has to feel comfortable toward the group. For example, if a child has to go to a group to do a job he or she has to change his or her behavior because he or she doesnít have to behave the same as at home. But some of the peer group may have bad behavior with the child who has a good behavior and the result of that, the child starts to behave badly with his or her parents or other people.

The third agent is the school, which has a strong influence in childís development too. The school " has direct responsibility for instilling in or teaching the individual information, skills, and values that society considers important for social life". In the school the child learns certain rules that he or she has to follow, such as his or her behavior in the environment and also in certain places.

The last agent is the Mass Media, which has importance in the childís development. The Mass Media can have both good and bad influence on a child. If the child spends a lot of his or her time watching TV programs that are violent, later on he or she may have bad behavior. But if the child watches TV programs that are good for him or her like Sesame Street in which the child learns the letters and how to play, this will be a good influence on behavior.

In brief, of the four agents, the most important is the family which has the most influence on the childís development and it is the family who has more responsibility for educating the child. Also the family knows what things are important for the childís life.

Francisca Solis
ESL91
Fall, 1999

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Focus Discipline: Computer Science

Topic: Do you think that businesses and governments will be able to solve The Year 2000 Problem in time? Give concrete examples, taken from your readings, to support your answer.

Many stories are flying in the air about the Y2K problem. You can find it in newspapers, magazines and on TV. It is all about catastrophe that is coming on January 1, 2000, or even before! In general, what is the Y2K problem? Years ago computers were big machines with an expensive memory space. For more economy of computer space, programmers set only the two last digits of the year. For example, the year 1997 was set as "97". So, when the year 2000 comes, a computer might recognize this year as 1800, 1900, or 2000, because the last two digits become "00". As a result many computer systems which depend on correct record will be shut down, or may produce big errors at midnight on January 1, 2000.

There could be some problems with ordinary PCs, but let's imagine how many computer systems can be destroyed in government, in businesses. From nuclear weapons and space satellites to traffic lights and phone calls - everything is under computer control. The electricity of big cities, banking accounts, transportation systems and much more can crash. Of course, there are a lot more scares about how planes may fall from the sky and power may fail everywhere because of the Y2K problem. Banks, companies and government departments whose "life" is based on using a computer chain have employed special task forces already. They are trying to change their computer software and hardware as fast as it possible. Even though, they can't say that they will be ready on time.

Moreover, not everybody cares, and many aren't worried about the problem. Whatever it could be, ignoring this problem is wrong and will be more expensive. Because and as a result of crashing computer systems, there could be problems like wrong banking payments, problems with the electricity, telephones, etc. As I said before, the Y2K problem is well known and programmers are able to solve this problem. The actual problem is that we have to fix many different programs in many different places and not everyone is absolutely sure that they will fix it exactly on time. However, those who don't want to spend some money to solve the problem probably will lose a lot more.

I believe that on the actual day there will be a few problems, particularly in government systems because of a "net" of computers that they use. Many parts of our lives like Social Security payments and taxes depend on this computer chain, so the Y2K problem might produce some difficulties in our lives. Moreover, an unfixed computer may produce some mistakes in the "healthy" computer, almost like a virus. The Y2K problem won't be painless, but we will get through it.

Maksim Stepanov
ESL 91
Fall, 1999

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Focus Discipline: Computer Science

Topic: Do you think that businesses and governments will be able to solve The Year 2000 Problem in time? Give concrete examples, taken from your readings, to support your answer.

The closer to the Year 2000, the more serious the Y2K problem seems to be. Now, as the new millenium approaches many people wonder if two months will be enough to be fully recovered from the Y2K Bug.

The Y2K problem was caused because the programmers creating their programs wanted to increase their efficiency by using the smallest possible codes. This caused them to reduce the numbers of the date from eight to six and to cut the two first digits of the year. After this "improvement" computers are not able to recognize the dates with numbers larger than 99. Since then, computers recognize years as two not four digits. It means that they canít see the difference between, for example, the year 1999 and 1899.

All those programmers who did this knew about the future problem, but many of them didnít expect their programs to be used until the Year 2000. Probably the wrong expectation about the future didnít let them to think about their mistake.

Many countries, especially governments and businesses are scared when it was time to begin facing the problem. Now, if they do not work on fixing the problem their computers will probably shut down. We all know that today computers control many aspects of our lives. Our credit cards, accounts, even financial aids can suffer on January 1.

Not all businesses have already taken care of the problem. More than five million small businesses are still at risk and about 80 percent of them donít plan to take any action to fix the Y2K related problem before the Year 2000.

It will have a big impact on all of us if the government does not solve the Millenium Bug in time. Now it will cost the government a lot to overcome the problem. But many countries donít want to spend money on something that is invisible. They think that the more economic way is to fix the problems after the consequences will be visible, than spend huge amounts of money before the problems persist. However, unsolved problems can lead to serious, international economic disruptions.

There are already many myths concerning the Y2K problem. Some people even think that everything electronic will stop working properly, even though the scientists deny that fact to be the truth.

The Y2K problem can even bring more serious complications, that force us to worry about our safety. Some of us think that the most harmful problem will be with aviation. For those who are afraid of flying now, the problem can seem to be even more scary. There are still many airlines that are not showing readiness for the Year 2000, but the officials declare that air travel will be as safe as it is now.

The programmers working on the problem know it very well, but they still have difficulty finding all places where the problem can occur. The two-digit date codes had been used for many years and now finding all of the systems using it is almost impossible.

Many of us still donít believe the officials who say that they are prepared for the new millenium, because we think that they just donít want to spread bad news. Anyway, we should be ready for surprises, knowing that not too much time remains, and expect some malfunctions during the first weeks of January.

Radek Turowski
ESL 91 D01B
Fall, 1999

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Focus Discipline: Business

Topic: Choose one print and one television advertisement for (a) a wristwatch and (b) an automobile. In a well-organized essay, compare and contrast the effectiveness of the print versus the visual advertisement for the wristwatch versus the automobile. Was each advertising medium equally effective for both products? Why? Why Not? Support your statements with concrete examples.

Probably everybody is familiar with Cindy Crawford's photo with the Omega watch and Mercedes-Benz' TV ad which shows the history of this famous German car. Both the print and TV advertisements are done very professionally by using two different media of persuasion and both seem very effective in delivering their main ideas. It is fair to say that the two ads have successfully achieved their final objectives because they convey the necessary information in an appealing and convincing way.

The print ad mainly relies on Cindy Crawford's celebrity status, which conveys beauty and style. It is an appropriate means of advertisement because watches are relatively small objects, which generally require people to look at them closely in order to see the important details of them. The text description of the Omega watch that is right under the picture provides useful information about the quartz mechanism, the automatic date calendar and the gold ornaments. These features of the Omega could be presented pretty efficiently on television as well provided the camera takes a close look at all small visual details and a voice reads the characteristics of the Swiss product. The only problem with that would be the fact that customers often need to stare for a long time at the watches they are interested in. This is because by doing so they could analyze closely all minor details. TV ads cannot offer this convenience because they are limited by time.

Car advertising, however, is different. Access to television is an absolute prerequisite for a successful campaign. Mercedes-Benz proves this unwritten rule in its ad, which focuses on the history of its models from the start of the company through today. There, great psychological effects are achieved by showing famous political and entertainment figures driving and walking out of the car model from that particular time period. Furthermore, the sound of German music emphasizes the tradition in making these vehicles. The last, but not the least, visual persuasion in the benefits of the Mercedes is accomplished through a series of shots of the car from different angles and in various weather conditions. It would be impossible to present all these features in a two-dimensional print and they would not have the same visual and psychological impact on people.

Although advertisers use both print and TV ads for promoting watches and cars, they are not interchangeable. Selecting the right one for each product is a complex decision because one has to take into consideration many factors: objectives, target market and most importantly how to present the product's features in the most appealing manner. Omega and Mercedes-Benz' campaigns serve as good examples of how the two different media of advertising could be used most efficiently.

Teodora Kostova
ESL 91
Fall, 1999

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Focus Discipline: Business

Topic: Choose one print and one television advertisement for (a) a wristwatch and (b) an automobile. In a well-organized essay, compare and contrast the effectiveness of the print versus the visual advertisement for the wristwatch versus the automobile. Was each advertising medium equally effective for both products? Why? Why Not? Support your statements with concrete examples.

Advertising is a good way to recommend products to many people. In the early 19th century, advertisements of products were only available through newspapers and magazines. But today, advertising has been expanded further to include television and the Internet. This paper will focus on the comparison of the two most popular advertising mediums, hypertext print from the Internet and television. The objects to be compared for advertisement in this paper will be a watch and a car.

Television advertisement are very popular now days. Due to its high cost, not too many companies can afford to stay long during the TV commercial break to explain detailed information regarding their products. Therefore, not much technical information can be related to the consumers. Hypertext print from the Internet; however, can provide a greater amount of information through links that guide you to obtain the information that you need. Hypertext offers more diversified information than television, because it can approach information management in which data is stored in a network of nodes and connected by links. From the nodes we can find more and more information.

In contrast to television, hypertext print shows the consumers a static picture of the product; however, it gives more detailed technical information. For example: If I want to buy a watch, where I am going to find it? Should I look for the advertisement from the television or should I go for the information on the Internet. For me I will look for it on the Internet. Personal computers connected to the Internet are available everywhere, school, home, work place, and the library. So I just go online to find the topics I like to buy and the computer will take care of the inquiry through the Internet search engines. From the Internet I can find many different models, styles and detailed information about the watch. I can also find out the price of the watch and make some comparison between these online stores. If I am looking for a watch through television advertisement, the chance of catching it is very rare. Even if I happened to be there while on advertisement is showing the watch, it may not be the model that I am looking for. A television advertisement will show me the picture, model, function and maybe the price of the watch; however there will be very little technical information provided for me to make a comparison between watch models.

What about buying a new car? I think a television advertisement is not as good as a hypertext print advertisement. Car advertisements from television usually show you the model of the car, the power train warranty, and how much you are going to save over some other models. A television advertisement will probably catch some attention from TV viewers during the commercial break because it shows consumers about the car with live graphics, sound, and music along with a funny story and actors. Very little technical information is provided to the consumer to make any comparison between models. On the other hand, if you choose the hypertext print advertisement from the Internet, you are going to see a lot of information that will be helpful toward your purchase of the car of your dreams. For example, if you are looking for a sport utility vehicle such as the Lexus LX 470, you can find all the information on the Internet. Besides the picture of the car, hypertext links will provide articles regarding the history, the performance, and safety features, crash tests results. Comparisons between on and off road capabilities with some other sport utilities are also available. You can also find the consumer report on any car model that you like on the Web.

In conclusion, hypertext print advertisements for cars and watches are better than television advertisements. Television advertisements cannot provide detailed information for the product and furthermore, these TV ads are not available on demand. On the other hand, hypertext print on the Internet will provide you instant access to almost any topic at any time. Before buying a product, most people will do some research and make some comparisons. The best way to get a comparison of the product that you are interested in buying is to surf the Web.

Karrie Chen
ESL 91
Fall, 1999

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Focus Discipline: Business

Topic: Describe a new product that you have developed, identify the target market for this new product, and then explain how you would market this new product. Be sure to provide detailed information on how you would deal with considerations such as merchandising and consumer needs.

"Teodore Kosto"
737 Madison Avenue
New York, NY 10021
Tel. (212) 777-2714

Although there are many exclusive stores in Manhattan, the idea of creating a boutique that could successfully compete with the top brands in the fashion industry is still quite appealing. As an entrepreneur, I would focus on developing my own fashion line, which will target a very selected male clientele with exquisite taste. In order to accomplish this I will choose Madison Avenue as an appropriate location for my store. This way it will attract the desired clients with its unique exterior and interior design.

My fashion line will consist of trendy ready-to-wear business suits, shirts, pants and accessories that will change the way business people dress. This project will be accomplished by selecting a group of well skilled designers and tailors who will transform my ideas into stylish clothes. In addition, I will order very fine fabrics from different countries and do the actual sewing in Italy. Although, this will raise the costs of production, it is very important to make the right impression on the group of men I will concentrate on. The line will be named "Teodore Kosto", and not "Teodora Kostova", in order to eliminate the effect of the East European sounding of my name. Naturally, the prices will be relatively high. My basic target market will be professionals who make $300k+ a year and are willing to pay more for quality goods. We all know that not all men are as big spenders as women, but the ones I will go after are the highly paid corporate executives, the independently wealthy individuals and the ones in show business. These men tend to be willing to pay extra for better quality and a good brand name. Thatís why creating a brand awareness will be crucial. I intend to advertise in magazines like GQ, Vogue; and host social receptions to promote my fashion line.

Another important factor to consider will be the storeís location. It is only natural to have it on Madison Avenue where most of the rich Manhattan elite shop. Although rent costs there are extremely high, it is very important to have a presence on that particular avenue in order to maintain the image of exclusivity.

The exterior and interior design of the store will also be essential to the success of my idea. I plan to decorate it in an abstractive and surprising way. Just imagine walking down Madison Avenue, looking in the front window and seeing moving mannequins. In order to satisfy your curiosity you get closer and see that they are actually live people. Furthermore, they will be gorgeous girls dressed in male suits, shoes, hats and accessories doing different activities. One would sit in an expensive leather chair reading a magazine, while another would play mini golf and drink a fresh juice. The reason behind this idea is that men are attracted to women and from my experience I could say that women tend to bring more male customers and make them potential buyers. In addition, refreshments and snacks will be served which will differentiate the business from the other expensive stores on Madison Avenue.

It is clear that the realization of this idea of mine will require a lot of time, effort and money. However, I have the determination to create a place different from all other menís fashion stores. Apart from the classic and contemporary clothes the store will offer an extraordinary service and an unusual décor which will make a unique shopping experience.

Teodora Kostova
ESL 91
Fall,1999

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Focus Discipline: Business

Topic: Describe a new product that you have developed, identify the target market for this new product, and then explain how you would market this new product. Be sure to provide detailed information on how you would deal with considerations such as merchandising and consumer needs.

Opening up a business is extremely difficult. An entrepreneur is faced with a lot of questions, such as what business to open up, where it should be located, what market to target. I have asked myself all these questions and decided to open a Russian nightclub in Columbus, Ohio. This will be an extremely profitable enterprise due to the growing Russian community and the lack of competition in this type of business.

I lived in Columbus Ohio for eight years of my life. My family was one of the first Russian families to arrive in Columbus. Throughout the years the Russian community has grown dramatically. It is still growing at a fast pace. People who immigrate to a different country often feel nostalgic. They miss the environment and the culture that they left behind. New York City is the best example of it. It is bombarded with different kinds of ethnic restaurants and ethnic stores. Most of them are successful due to the large number of ethnic communities.

By opening a Russian Nightclub in Columbus Ohio, I will bring back to the Russian community their culture, some excitement into their lives and ease the nostalgia. At my nightclub, people will be able to come and share their happy occasions, and other memorable dates with each other. It will be a gathering place for people of all ages and economic backgrounds.

The club will be located in the Bexley area. This location consists of a highly concentrated Russian community. In addition, the population of Bexley consists of second and third generation Russians, who may not know anything about their ancestors, but who would love to have an opportunity to learn about their culture. Bexley is conveniently accessible from other parts of the city. Since it will be the only Russian nightclub in town, I expect that Americans will also visit the place to simply taste the Russian food and enjoy the entertainment.

"WHITE NIGHTS," is going to be the name of my nightclub. It is going to be an upscale casual club-restaurant. It should be big enough to fit up to two hundred people, so it will be the number one choice for celebrations of occasions such as weddings. Mirror walls at the club will bring a volume to the place. Contemporary furniture will create a cozy atmosphere. Dinner tables will be available for people who want to dine and coffee tables with abstract couches for those who just come in to have a couple of drinks and to enjoy the music. In the center, there will be a stage where a live band will perform. By the stage there will a large TV screen that will show what is going on on the dance floor, which will be located beside the stage.

The menu will consist of a variety of Eastern-European food. People will be able to order either from the menu or have a banquet. The banquet will include appetizers, main entree, dessert, one bottle of alcohol and unlimited soft drinks. The banquet will be priced at $40 a person, whereas ordering from the menu will run between $25 to $35 a person. Those who come in just for a few drinks will enjoy their drinks with delicious appetizers or assorted fruit plates. The exquisite menu along with reasonable prices will appeal to customers of all economic backgrounds.

To get a new business off the ground a successful advertising campaign is imperative. Flyers will be distributed in the Russian grocery store, Jewish Community Center and Synagogues, since these are places that generate a lot of traffic from Russian immigrants. Also, I will place ads in local newspapers. That way the American community will also be aware of my existence. However, the main source of advertising will be word-of-mouth. In addition, to attract more people on the Grand Opening Night I will offer a complementary bottle of champagne or wine per group of four people. A 10% discount will be distributed towards the future visits to those who share the excitement of the Grand Opening with my staff and me. This advertising campaign will no doubt get my business up and running in no time.

"WHITE NIGHTS " will become the talk of the town. It will be the only place that provides people with great entertainment, an exotic menu and professional service. It will indeed be the only nightlife of the city. Spectacular entertainment will attract people to my restaurant throughout the whole night and for them that night is going to be the "WHITE NIGHT."

Minga Galperin
ESL 91
Fall, 1999

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Focus Discipline: Psychology

Topic: Antipsychotic drugs have proven very effective in helping to control the symptoms of mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. However, these drugs sometimes cause serious side-effects. In light of this, do you think that patients who are being treated for schizophrenia or other severe mental disorders should have the right to refuse drug therapy? Be sure to cite specific examples from your reading and research to support your answer.

Mental and emotional disorders affect approximately one percent of population. One of these disorders is schizophrenia, which is characterized by a break with reality. There are different kinds of schizophrenia, but any one of them needs treatment. Acute schizophrenia has a good prognosis for recovery, and a patient may live without having another attack. The other forms of schizophrenia, such as paranoid, catatonic and hebephrenic schizophrenia need hospitalization and the family of a schizophrenic should be responsible for the decision to do it.

Some famous people like the leader of Russia Joseph Stalin and the leader of Germany Adolph Hitler suffered from the paranoid form of schizophrenia. These people suffered from delusions of persecution or grandeur. Stalin and Hitler never received treatment for this illness. Perhaps, thatís why they were the cause of the arrests, shootings, killings, and deaths of millions of people. Once I read an article about how a man pushed a woman under a train in the subway. The man suffered from an aggressive paranoid form of schizophrenia, but he didnít take anti psychotic drugs. If his family had hospitalized him and the doctors had taken care of him, this tragedy might never have happened.

Although paranoid schizophrenics need hospitalization, some forms of schizophrenia do not need hospitalization. I know the life-story of one woman who suffered from schizophrenia, but who didnít need hospitalization. The cause of this illness was War World Two. In 1941 she was about fifteen. She lived in Kaunas, Lithuania with her parents and brothers. In 1941 the German troops occupied Kaunas and she with her parents and brothers did not have time to run from Kaunas. They lived in a Ghetto because they were Jews. It was a terrible time for many- many people in the Ukraine, Byelorussia, Latvia, who didnít have time to evacuate from there. The fascists shot her mother, father and twin brothers in her presence. She was very frightened and at night she decided to run away. She survived too much and this all was a cause of her schizophrenia. Her behavior was strange, and she often cried.

When she was older and married her husband decided that they had to move. He thought that this would help her to forget the terrible time. They moved to another city. The husband paid good attention to her and helped her to come back to a normal life.

However, many forms of schizophrenia have a poor prognosis for recovery, especially in the case of the paranoid, catatonic or hebephrenic forms of schizophrenia, and the person needs hospitalization. The families of schizophrenics have to help them to make the decision to come to the hospital. Then they can get the necessary help and be treated with drug therapy, specifically without psychotic drugs.

In conclusion I want to say, if the schizophrenic is not dangerous to other people, she or he may feel better in the family and so should not be hospitalized. However, a person who is suffering from the paranoid form of schizophrenia has to be hospitalized and the family of these schizophrenics should be responsible for this decision.

Mariya Rakhlevskaya
ESL 91
Fall, 1999

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Focus Discipline: Psychology

Topic: The reading states that cultural influences play a role in the development of eating disorders. You have learned about four critical agents of socialization: the family, the school, the peer group, and the mass media. The reading describes the influence of the mass media in encouraging women to pursue the cultural idea of beauty. In your essay, you should discuss how the family, the school, and/or the peer group can either reinforce or counteract the influences of the mass media with regard to weight and self-image. Provide specific examples drawn from your personal experiences to support your position.

Socialization is an important process that we cannot lack in our development. Of course, not everything we learn through socialization has positive results. Sometimes, it will have negative results. There are four critical agents of socialization: the family, the school, the peer group and the mass media.

Referring to the book Interdisciplinary English written by Loretta F. Kasper, the article "Socialization of Eating Disorders," it said: "Slim bodies are considered beautiful and worthy; overweight bodies are not only unhealthy, but are regarded as offensive and disgusting. The Mass Media is greatly responsible for spreading the message of "thin is in" to women. From television to magazines, media material directed at women is more concerned with their weight. Many advertisements and articles are dealing with diet food body shape, so, many women especially young women want to lose weight." Because of this, many women don't have balanced nutrition. The two impossible disorders they get are anorexia and bulimia.

Anorexia is a serious eating disorder in which a person restricts eating to the point of emaciation and possible starvation. Most victims are high-achieving females in early puberty or early adulthood. Bulimia is an eating disorder in which the person, usually female, engages repeatedly in episodes of binge eating followed by purging through induced vomiting or use of laxatives.

During the 20th Century, a slim body is a symbol of beauty for women. That's why many women are trying to lose weight to fit into the society. Actually, not all of the people are overweight, but they perceive themselves as overweight. Research shows that over 60 percent of young women believe that they are overweight; actually, only 2 percent are. However, this concept makes it very easy for many women to get an eating disorder.

In addition, television advertisements, magazines or articles remind women to keep fit or control weight. Everything surrounding them is likely to enforce them to lose weight. Sometimes, they don't want to, but it seems like they have to. While diet and weight control are important to consider for maintaining good health, it can be dangerous and unhealthy for females who do not need to lose weight. They diet to try to fit into the society and so, their health becomes weak and they become underweight.

I remember when I was fourteen years old. I was trying to lose weight because everybody around me was too thin or slim. It really affected my feeling at that time. Actually, I was not fat at that age, but after I compared myself with my friends, it seemed like I was overweight. Every day when I turned on the television, there were a lot of advertisements telling me that I should lose weight.

The advertisements use a lot of underweight models to sell or promote their products. They give a lot of messages to women, especially young women, that a slim body is important. Some of the advertisements will teach you how to lose weight. Not only do TV advertisements focus on weight control, but others like magazines focus on it too. Sometimes, I hate to turn on the television or look at the magazine because I don't want to hear about losing weight anymore. Unfortunately, I cannot control it even though I try very hard to avoid these messages because this society still has a lot of people who like to talk about it, especially my friends.

As a result, I try to lose weight. I stop eating breakfast and some high calories. Also, I'm eating something to help me lose weight quickly, but it has a negative result after you stop eating it. For instance, you are 135 pounds when you eat it. During that time, you really can lose maybe 15 pounds, but after you stop eating it for a short time, your weight will increase to 140 or more. It looks terrible and unhealthy. I really don't think it is a good idea for me to lose weight. Sometimes, when I look back on what I did before, I feel I am crazy. But however, I think it is a good experience to remind me not to do it again.

I understand most women like to have a perfect body shape especially in this century. A slim body represents success and is more attractive to men, but we shouldn't forget that without good health, you could not do anything. We need to stand up and have our own concept to control our life. We must make a decision about what is good or not good for us. Not everything from the society is negative, but we must try to use our mind to think before making a decision. A slim body is a good example for us, but having good health is more important than anything.

Mui, Kit Ying (Mary)
ESL 91
Fall, 1999

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Focus Discipline: Psychology

Topic: The reading states that cultural influences play a role in the development of eating disorders. You have learned about four critical agents of socialization: the family, the school, the peer group, and the mass media. The reading describes the influence of the mass media in encouraging women to pursue the cultural idea of beauty. In your essay, you should discuss how the family, the school, and/or the peer group can either reinforce or counteract the influences of the mass media with regard to weight and self-image. Provide specific examples drawn from your personal experiences to support your position.

It seems like everyone is talking about weight control around us. Family because they love us, schools want to educate us, at work they worry about better performance at the job and friends try to support our feelings. From young to old our generation is busy with the way we look because looks are linked with health, success, happiness and beauty.

Although we know that diet sometimes has the opposite affect and leads to sickness, people still automatically link happiness and skinny bodies. We can easily blame the media for the wrong message. TV, newspapers and advertisements show their models skinny as a bone and happy. The message is that skinny is beautiful and successful. This unrealistic message gives us greater pressure to look similar. Some people even get sick trying to fulfill the demand.

Schools try to educate the student for the dangers behind this untrue massage. From seminars to social workers, they try their best to explain the steps of eating disorders like anorexia and bulimia. Their job is very hard because of the media and research that shows mixed messages.

Families are worried about the way their loved ones will fit into the society. Fitting into society is important to our mental health and state of mind. Families think that if we fit into the society the path to succeed in life will open and be easier. The next step is happiness that leads us to a healthier body like they say "in a healthy body a healthier soul."

At work research shows that it is a fact that skinnier people have a better salary and more promotions. With this kind of pressure we can see why everyone is talking about the subject. Psychologists and schools lose the field most of the time because the media have stronger messages with their advertisements. They constantly show us skinny models and yet talk about how great the food product is. The message is eat, eat, eat and stay slim.

It is very sad that psychologically the media can change our view on things, brainwash us, and reinforce unrealistic demands. We all should think twice before doing anything that can harm us and analyze why we are doing so. People need more or less pressure but we can probably all agree that the media brainwashes us and damages our thinking.

Efronit Levi
ESL 91
Fall, 1999

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Focus Discipline: Biology

Topic: Research in genetics has produced many important discoveries such as the structure and function of DNA. In the past several years a large project, known as the Human Genome Project, has been undertaken to try to determine the details of the complete set of human genes. Describe the Human Genome Project, and explain some of the important issues involved in it.

One of the most important discoveries in genetics is the structure and function of DNA. Now in modern genetics this research has helped the scientists to understand how heredity is transmitted. Based on this information, scientists made a project called The "Human Genome Project" whose purpose is to determine the sequence of DNA.

The "Human Genome Project" started ten years ago and is estimated to finish by the year 2003. It will cost around $3 billion dollars. This research has already discovered 4000 inherited human disorders. None are curable, but many are treatable.

The genome of an organism is the totality of DNA sequences in the cell nucleus. The DNA transmits the genetic information and consists of two strands, which are twisted around each other.

The Human Genome Project has advantages such as the study of human evolution. For example, it may tell us where people of pacific came from, or how Australia was settled. Another advantage is finding cures or treatments for inherited illnesses.

There are also disadvantages of the HGP, for example, based on finding genes that transmit inherited disorders insurance companies may require people to get a test to see if they carry a fatal gene. However you can have the gene that causes heart disease and yes you may no develop it.

In conclusion any information we get from this research will helps us to control mutation defects, that cause inherited disorders. The HGP will lead us to get a better quality of life, and may extend the average life span in the future. In fact the results of the HGP can be used to do good or to do harm.

Bibliography

Kasper, Loretta F. Interdisciplinary English. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1998. 156-158.

Macinnes, Peter. "Human Genome Project". Websterís International Encyclopedia '99 (CD-ROM). New York: Webster Publishing, 1999.

Sandra Sanchez
ESL 91
Fall, 1999

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Focus Discipline: Biology

Topic: Research in genetics has produced many important discoveries such as the structure and function of DNA. In the past several years a large project, known as the Human Genome Project, has been undertaken to try to determine the details of the complete set of human genes. Describe the Human Genome Project, and explain some of the important issues involved in it.

Every day the knowledge of science grows higher and higher. Scientists made our lives easier by discovering many important things. They strive to protect our society from some genetic deseases, from viruses and so on. Unfortunately some issues are unsolved, but scientists still strive to solve these issues. One of the examples is the Human Genome Project.

The Human Genome Project is an ongoing international effort to map the positions of each of the human genes on the chromosomes and to find the sequence of the chemicals that make up the genes. Scientists think that to solve these tasks, it will take at least 15 years.

The greatest technical challenge in the Human Genome Project is DNA sequencing. DNA sequencing is the process of determining the exact order of the 3 billion chemical building blocks (called bases and abreviated A, T, C and G) making up the DNA of the 24 different human chromosomes. Chromosomes are made up of about forty percent DNA, and sixty percent protein. Because chromosomes contain larger amounts of protein than of DNA, scientists initially thought that protein was responsible for carrying hereditary information. All genes are arranged linearly along the chromosomes.The nucleus of most human cells contains 2 set of chromosomes, 1 set given by each parent. Each set has 23 single chromosomes, 22 autosomes and a sex chromosomes pair (XX females, XY in males).

Each DNA molecule contains many genes, the basic physical units of heredity. A gene is a specific sequence of nucleotide bases, whose sequences carry the information required for constructing proteins which provide the structural components of cells and tissues as well as enzymes for essential biochemical reactions. The human genome is estimated to comprise approximetely 80,000 - 100,000 genes. Human genes very widely in length, often extending over thousands of bases, but only about ten precent of the genome is known to include the protein coding sequences of genes.

In September, the advisory committees at DOE and NIH approved new 5-year goals aimed at completing the Human Genome Project two years earlier than originally planned in 1990. The new plan published in the October 23, 1998 issue of Science, covers fiscal years 1999-2003 and calls for generating a '' working draft'' of the human genome DNA sequence by 2001 and obtaining the complete and highly accurate reference sequence by 2003. I hope that the knowledge of science will grow higher, and scientists will discover more and more important things to reduce our society from diseases and viruses. These should be the coordinates of our compass for a brighter future. Only time can show as the result of improvement of science knowledge.

Lyubov Danirova
ESL 91
Fall, 1999

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Focus Discipline: Biology

Topic: Research in genetics has produced many important discoveries such as the structure and function of DNA. In the past several years a large project, known as the Human Genome Project, has been undertaken to try to determine the details of the complete set of human genes. Describe the Human Genome Project, and explain some of the important issues involved in it.

Many important discoveries brought a revolution in the science world. Many impossible problems have been unfolded by the scientific discoveries. In the past several years, the scientists tried hard to find the source to get rid of the dangerous diseases. The scientists began the Human Genome Project to help to resolve the solutions.

The human genome project is an international effort to find out each of the human genes in the chromosomes. The aim of this project to find those chemical building blocks that make up the genes. Probably, these tasks will take at least 15 years. The program has been underway for several years now. The program has successfully mapped to arrange the information in the human's genomes.

Humans are specified by about 100,000 genes, which are transmitted from parents to children. These genes grow in the section of DNA and except for a small amount of mitochondrial DNA, the genes are all contained on the 46 chromosomes in each of our cells. All DNA in a human being makes up his or her 'genome'. Scientists identified that DNA sequence variations can have a major impact on how our bodies respond to disease; environmental insults, such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins; and drugs and other therapies.

DNA actually makes up genes and transits useful information. This information can be taken from small and harmless blood samples, from hair roots, from cells scraped off the inside of a cheek with a tongue depressor, and from septum, and other biological materials. The information that we get can help us to work out where the peoples of the pacific came from, how Australia was settled and many other amazing stories.

The HGP will certainly provide the treatments of some inherited diseases in parents and will allow the diagnosis of such disorders during pregnancy. It may also improve treatments of other genetic diseases. Inherited diseases will be much better understood when more results are available from the Human Genome Project, which began in 1990. Only time will reveal what good and what harm comes from the Human Genome Project.

Nargis Naz
ESL 91
Fall, 1999

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Focus Discipline: Biology

Topic: Antipsychotic drugs have proven very effective in helping to control the symptoms of mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. However, these drugs sometimes cause serious side-effects. In light of this, do you think that patients who are being treated for schizophrenia or other severe mental disorders should have the right to refuse drug therapy? Be sure to cite specific examples from your reading and research to support your answer.

About 2.5 percent of the U.S.A. population suffers from Schizophrenia and over 1 in 5 Americans can expect to get some form of depression in their lifetime. These diseases make peopleís life difficult and in some cases, such as Schizophrenia, the subject canít tell the difference between reality and hallucination. Until now a cure has not been found for these mental illnesses, yet they are treatable. Antipsychotic medication and psychotherapy are being used to help people regain their mental health. Some medications like Clozapine, which is the most common drug used to treat Schizophrenia Ė produce severe side effects Ė for example Agranulocytosis (loss of the white blood cells that fight infection). Regardless of the side affects, antipsychotic drugs are the best source of treatment currently available and provide the patient with the greatest opportunity to recover their mental balance and rationality.

People with Schizophrenia have a chemical imbalance in their brain, adsorbing dopamine, which is a neurotransmitter that permits nerve cells in the brain to send messages to each other. Subjects with this illness experience delusions, hallucinations, lack of motivation, social withdrawal and thought disorders. These symptoms vary from person to person, from mild to severe. Tranquillizers are used to control the equilibrium of neurotransmitters in the brain, but they maybe followed by side effects such as drowsiness, restlessness, muscle spasms, tremors, dry mouth or blurring of vision. On the other hand psychotherapy involves session talks between the patient and a mental health professional. This helps the subject to understand how to get along with friends, family, society and helps him/her to face his/her disease. People with schizophrenia donít believe they are sick; they have problems remembering in some cases they canít even care for their own basic needs. These are a variety of reasons why people with schizophrenia do not refuse drug treatment.

A new number of antipsychotic drugs have been introduced since 1990. Clozapine which is the first of them, has been shown to be more effective than the others antipsychotics, although the possibility of severe side effects Ė in particular a condition called agranulocytosis- mentioned before, the patients require to be monitored with blood test every one or two weeks. Even newer antipsychotics drugs, such as risperdal and zyprexa, are safer than the older drugs or clopazine, and they also may be better tolerated. They may or may not treat illness as well as clopazine, however. Several additional antipsychotics are currently under development.

In addition, from my own experience, a few years ago I lost my little daughter. I thought I would continue my life the same way as it was before. But day-by-day I kept losing track of what was happening to me. I got to the point where I did not want to live, my family took me to a specialist and found out I had a chronic depression. I started getting medication and psychotherapy treatment. Once I started feeling well, I realized that without this treatment I wouldnít have survived such a terrible experience. Also once patients under medication get better, they will be able to function in the community as well as to have an independent life.

In conclusion, every medication has side effects, some more severe than others. People who donít have mental disorders but another kind of disease like "breast cancer" know the best treatment known is chemotherapy. This treatment has many side effects, for example, looseness of hair. On the other hand the patient does not have a choice but to get the treatment. This means that they know the side effects, but they have the chance to get better. An individual with mental disorders canít recognize he is sick; therefore, a psychologist should decide the best treatment he can have. Unfortunately in life we have to take chances. We either win or lose; we get better or worse. Fortunately there are many studies searching for cures that will help us to get a better quality of life.

Bibliography

Disorders & Treatments. "All About Schizophrenia Ė Mental Health Net. Online. http://schizophrenia.mentalhelp.net/ . Oct. 7, 1999.

National Institute of Mental Health. "Schizophrenia". Online. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/Publicat/schizoph.htm . Oct 5, 1999.

Welcome to CPAnet. "Schizophrenia". Online.http://cpa.medical.org/pubs/miaw/schizeng.htm. Oct. 5, 1999

Sandra Sanchez
ESL 91
Fall, 1999

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Focus Discipline: Biology

Topic: Do you think that patients who are being treated for schizophrenia or other severe mental disorders should have the right to refuse drug therapy?

Schizophrenia is very serious chronic brain disease; it is one of many other mental disorders. Schizophrenia often causes a high degree of disability. Medications and the treatments for schizophrenia, when used regularly and as prescribed , can reduce and control distressing symptoms of the illness. But some people are not greatly helped by available treatments, and they discontinue treatment because of side effects that appear.

The people with schizophrenia may experience delusions and hallucinations , lack of motivation, social withdrawal, thought disorders. Schizophrenia and other mental disorders have been studied with new technology. The scientists have discovered that behavior and emotions are higher functional properties of the brain that depend on the network of neurons and chemical neurotransmitters that exist in the body. There are many drugs that can influence the operation of neurotransmitter systems, which can influence and alter the behavior of patients with psychiatric problems.

Antipsychotic medications have been available since the mid-1950s. Antipsychotic drugs now available are the best treatment. Most often doctors prescribe newer drugs like Risperidon, Olanzapine, and these drugs are better for schizophrenia than the older drugs like Haloperidol or Chlorpromazine. The choice and dosage of medications can be made only by a qualified physician who is well trained in the medical treatment of mental disorders. The dosage of medication is individualized for each patient to reduce symptoms and side effects, and the power of side effect is different for each patient.

Antipsychotic drugs, like many other medications, have unwanted side effects. During drug treatment patients may have side effects such as drowsiness, restlessness, muscle spasms, tremor, dry mouth, or blurring of vision. Most of these can be corrected by lowering the dosage or can be controlled by other medications. The long -term side effects of these drugs can give more serious problems like tardive dyskinesia (TD). This disease gives the patient a disorder of involuntary movements, affecting the mouth, lips, tongue, and sometimes arms and legs. The overdose of some medications produces side effects like Parkinson's disease. Because of all said above, scientists are continuing their research on using drugs on people with schizophrenia. Because of side effects some patients with schizophrenia don't want to take medications at all, or they don't take their medication every day. Because of this, we must ask if patients have the right to discontinue taking medications because of their worse feeling.

In my opinion the patients with brain disease like schizophrenia cannot get the right to decide about taking medications or not, because only doctors well-trained in psychotherapy can solve this problem. In my opinion, discontinuing medications can lead to worse side effects for patient than before. Exit from treatment must be very careful and under the control of doctors. Taking antipsychotic medications consistently reduces intensity and frequency of relapses.

A major goal of current research on treatments for schizophrenia is to develop a wider variety of long- acting antipsychotics with milder side effects, which can be delivered through injection. With proper and improved medications, extensive people and psychotherapy support, people with sicknesses like schizophrenia and other mental disorders will be able to work, and not discontinue their treatment.

Svetlana Tulchinskaya
ESL 91
Fall, 1999

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Focus Discipline: Physical Anthropology

Topic: In the play, Inherit the Wind, both Henry Drummond and Matthew Brady presented strong arguments to support their position on the issue of evolution versus creation. Describe the Scopes Trial and write a summary of the arguments on each side of the question. Which of these arguments do you find more convincing? Explain why.

The Scopes Monkey Trial

The Scopes Trial took place in Dayton Tennessee in 1925. This trial was about science teacher who was convicted of breaking a Tennessee statue that prohibited schools from teaching Darwin's theory of Evolution. Darwin's theory suggested that "Humans descended from the apes." The statue that prohibited any state supported schools from teaching this theory is known as the Butler Act. The state of Tennessee used this law to stop any idea, which is believed to be subversive.

The Scopes Trial was a very hot issue in the U.S back in 1920`s because it was dealing with new evolutionary beliefs, and this trial was covered by the media. The trial began on July 10th, 1925 and lasted eight days. The trial became a major issue in the media in that time because 200 newsmen covered it, and it was the first trial to be covered by a national radio broadcast. In addition to that, this trial was covered internationally, as 65 telegraph operators sent daily reports.

In this trial, there were two different points of view represented by the law prosecutor Matthew Brady and the defense attorney Henry Drummond. Brady represented the Creationist viewpoint, and Drummond represented the Evolutionist viewpoint. Brady argued for the creationist position by saying that science cannot explain the most basic of god's creations. Brady believed that since god made everything on the earth he could change everything even the natural law. He quoted Bishop Usher who said that the earth was created in the fall of 4004 BC, at 9:00 AM as evidence for his argument. This is not the kind of the evidence that is usually presented in the court of law because this kind of evidence is not physical evidence; it is a religious belief.

Drummond represented the Evolutionist viewpoint held by Clarence Darrow. Drummond`s legal argument was different and was based on scientific law. Drummond argued that the individual mind is holy and that an idea is a greater monument then a cathedral. He asked Brady why, if we must accept everything on the faith, did God plague us with the power to think. Drummond countered Brady `s argument that we should only believe in things that are in the Bible by using Brady's own theory to prove that evolution can be blended with a belief in creation.

I believe that Henry Drummond's argument was more convincing because his argument was based on logical evidence and convincing dialogue. Drummond said that God created the power of thought for Humans. Also, Drummond stated that we should not take the Bible literally, and he gave an example of Copernicus' theory of natural law to support his statement. The Bible says that the sun stood still and that the sun moves around the earth. It is well known that this theory is not correct. Drummond also used the 10 million-year-old fossil remains of a prehistoric marine creature, and he asked Brady if it were possible that at the time of creation, a day were longer than 24 Hours. Drummond`s argument was strong enough to make Brady admit that he did not know how long a day was at the time of the creation.

Although Drummond's arguments were very convincing, he lost the trial. The Judge found Scopes blamable and fined him $100.00 for his offense.

In conclusion, I can say that the Scope's trial represented religious beliefs versus science. It was unusual for teachers in many of the public schools in the 1920`s to teach any theory that violated the theory of human creation as it is taught in the Bible. Drummond and Brady both made powerful and passionate statements in support of their respective antithetical positions.

Mubarak A. Abdella
ESL 91
Fall, 1999

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