ESL 91
FALL, 2003

Waseem 1
Waseem 2

Gandy Dorsainvil
ESL 91
Fall, 2003

Essay Topic: Explore the area of marketing in business. What is marketing? How have the principles of marketing changed as a result of the Internet?

There are so many ways to define marketing. The American marketing association defined marketing as the process of planning and executing conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives. According to Huge Mitchell, marketing is the exchange of goods and services, a very common and ordinary activity, which directs and controls the movement of goods and services from producers to consumers. My definition of marketing is a procedure to learn with precision the needs, and the wants of the consumers, and to fulfill them.

According to Huegy Mitchell, economists use the word utility to denote the capacity of things to satisfy human wants.It is necessary for companies that want to be successful in their efforts to develop and sell products to consider the four types of utilities in marketing. These utilities are: Form, Place, Time, and Possession.

First, the Form Utility: It means that the product is in the right form that the customer needs. For example, my friend wants to buy size seven Air Jordan sneakers. So he went to Foot Locker to purchase the sneakers, but the store doesn’t have the size that he wants. And then, he couldn’t buy them.

Second, the Place Utility: When you’re taking the goods to the place where they are needed . To illustrate the place utility let’s take this example: Somebody lives in Philadelphia, but New York is the only place where this item is stored, and he/she is not able to order it by mail, so he/she cannot buy it.

Third, Time utility:/ refers to whether the item is available at the time the consumers need it. For example, a friend of mine needs to buy some Christmas items in October, but no store sells them, and it is not easy to find the items. That means, he/she cannot buy them.

Finally,The possession Utility applies when form, place, and time utility are all present. For example, my friend Donald went to a store in our neighborhood to buy a brand name pant. He retrieved his right size on time, and wanted to pay by credit card.But this store took only cash, so the exchange could not take place.

Basically Companies decide their product’s price by applying the law of supply and demand. In theory, when supply surpasses demand, the price must go down. On the other hand, if demand exceeds supply, there is a large competition to buy the goods, and so the prices can be increased.For example, when companies offer many products to the market, the price goes down so that the consumers will consider purchasing.If the products are limited, consequently companies must increase the price in order to get a competition with others.

Since our technology has progressed over the years, we feel so many great changes in our life. For example, years ago until now, we used Television, Radio, Newspaper, and magazines to present advertising. When the Internet came up, a lot of companies view’s about marketing changed.As a result, almost 90% of large companies have a web page. Moreover, the consumers don’t need to be worried about the four utilities.As a good example let’s take the books. Whoever wants to buy a book can log on a web site like, view it, and purchase it quickly. Now, the four types of utilities are satisfied. There is no problem about time, place, form, and possession. However, for some items which you can’t clearly see and touch such as clothes, shoes, and others that you need to try on, and if you don’t have a credit card; absolutely the internet is not the best way to shop.

The internet, as a spider, has a good power to change the principles of marketing.This is not only about the four utilities.Also, it’s the best way for companies to plan and control the law of supply and demand. Following the book’s example. Many different students log on to to buy a new book. They found it, and they ordered that book.In response, the publisher now will consider the number of orders and the law of supply to determine the price and the quantity to be available.

In conclusion, the Internet represents a new field of activities for marketing techniques, specifically in advertising, and public relations. Actually we live in a world where the business has been changed technologically. Any companies that engage in traditional forms of marketing should include the internet to attract more customers and increase their incomes.

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Waseem Akhtar
ESL 91
Fall, 2003

Essay Topic: Explore the area of marketing in business. What is marketing? How have the principles of marketing changed as a result of the Internet?

What is marketing? Some people think that Marketing is only about advertising and selling of goods and services. According to the text “ Boone and Kurtz ”, “ Marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas , goods, services, organization and events to create  and maintain relationship that will satisfy individual and organization  objectives”. Advertising and selling, however are just two of many marketing activities.

There are four utilities in marketing, form, place , time, and possession utility, that any business that wants to be successful must apply. In order to be successful in business, it has to apply those terms. The first utility of marketing is form. The form utility refers to whether or not the item is in necessary form for a consumer to buy it. For example ,everybody wears a different size of sneaker. If the size the consumer wants is not being produced ,he will  not buy the product . Place refers to whether or not the product is  sold in the place people will buy it. For example, If a product is in  market in New Jersey and I live in New York and I want to buy  that product , and I don't have access to order by mail ,the  exchange will not take place. 

Time utility determines whether or not the products are  available at the right time that people will buy it. For example ,If I go to a store in December to buy sandals , they will be hard to find  because the market produces those things by season. Therefore , there is no time utility for me. The last utility in marketing is possession utility which refers to anything beside form, place and time that prevents the exchange from taking place. For example , If I go to a carpet store to buy a carpet ,but the carpet store only accepts cash and I have only a credit card , then the exchange will not take place . In this case possession utility does not apply  for me. 

Beside the utilities in marketing there are two other terms, Supply and demand , which are very important for the marketing.  The final price of the product is determined . according to the law  of supply and demand . The supply increases as the price increases,  and supply decreases as the price decreases. For example , when the  price of the sneaker increases ,they will produce more sneakers. When  the price of the sneaker decreases they will not produce  any more. The second important thing in marketing is demand.  

According to the law when the price goes up, the demand will  decrease . When the price goes down, the demand will increase.  For example , if you go to a store to buy some clothes and those  clothes are on sale , you will definitely buy those clothes .In other  words when some clothes are at a low price , they will be sold out  soon and people will demand those sale things. The demand  will increase as the price decreases and demand will decrease as the  price increases , as I said in my example. 

Another important successful key in marketing is to  fulfill consumers needs. Sometimes marketing only looks after goods  and services. The consumers don't need goods and services all the  time. They also need an honest relationship between customers and  salesman. For example , you go to a store to buy some product  and you ask them to bring this size up. They go to the stock  room and check it out for you , If they just told you that they  don't have it , they might be lying to you because they might not  want to bring it up. That's the relationship between the customers  and salesman . Salesmen should be honest with everyone.  

These things are all required to be successful in marketing. The internet has changed marketing activities. It is  very good and easy to establish and sell your product on the internet.  There are a lot of of people in the world who use the internet  everyday. You sell your product on the internet by establishing and  showing them all the product's good features . By using the internet marketing you can establish your product anywhere in the world and  you would be able to sell anywhere in the world. however there are  some advantages and disadvantages of establishing your product  on the internet. For example , products that people would like  to feel and try on would not be good to sell on the internet . That's the disadvantage of the internet . 

The internet has changed many ways of marketing. There are four utilities which are time , place form , and passion all  those apply to marketing. There are two other important factors , Supply and demand , also apply to marketing.  In general marketing is to look out for people's needs and  fulfill them. To succeed in business There are four basic utilities and  two other factors ,supply and demand which are important . The  Internet has also changed many ways of marketing . People are using the internet because its a better way to buy and sell products. 

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Waseem Akhtar
ESL 91
Fall, 2003

Essay Topic: Discuss the psychological factors involved in advertising. How do advertisers use the basic determinants of consumer behavior--needs, motives, perceptions, and attitudes--in designing product advertisements? What types of ads are most likely to appeal to or change our needs, motives, perceptions, and attitudes?

According to the text, “Consumer Behavior and Market Targeting” by Loretta F .Kasper , consumer psychology is defined as , “ The acts of individuals in the obtaining and using goods and service , including the decision process that precede and determine the acts” .Consumer behavior determines consumer purchasing behavior and includes four important factors .Those four factors are needs , motives , perceptions , and attitude, If the company wants to succeed in the market , they should pay attention to those four factors.

In order to be successful in the market ,the company should advertise their product. They should make an effective advertisement because when people look at it , that advertisement will attract consumer's attention . Then people will have positive attitudes about the company and the company will be successful in the market. For example , the advertiser should make advertisement in a way , which attracts consumer attention and that would make them buy that product . In other words when an advertiser designs the product , he should choose effective colors and he should choose those people who are already famous because there are many people who want to be like those famous people . In order to be like those people the consumer will look at your advertisement and if your advertisement is effective , they would definitely buy your product.

The advertisers use the basic determinants of consumer behavior , which are needs , motives , perceptions , and attitudes , to design their products . The advertiser should pay attention to consumer need . A need is something which you require . An attitude is when you believe something is bad , you will have bad attitude about it . When you believe something is good your attitude is one of approval .Perception is an impression given through the senses and attitude is the person's positive or negative impression to the ideas. In order to be successful the company must look after the basic four factors of consumer behaviors which leaves the positive or negative impression to the company . For example , when advertisers make the advertisement and that advertisement doesn't attracts consumer attention , they would have negative impression about that advertisement. In other words when an advertisement covers the four factors of consumer behavior that advertisement wouldn't affect consumer attention , then consumer will have negative impression and company wouldn't be able to be successful in the market.

Consumer behavior determines consumer purchasing behavior which includes important factors. Those factors are needs , motives , perception , and attitudes. The company should pay attention to those four factors if they want to succeed in the market. The advertiser should make an effective advertisement that will bring consumer attention to their advertisement and to their company. For example , if the company has good advertisement and they let the people try their product before they buy it , that would be good image for the company and that will attract consumer attention to their product .In other way , if company didn't have good advertisement and they didn't let the people feel their product ,consumer would have bad image for their company and they wouldn't be able to succeed in the market. In other words when the consumer is not satisfied with your product and your advertisement doesn't catch the consumer , they would prefer not to buy your product , which leaves a bad impression of the company .

Why do all companies focus on the advertisement ? It's because advertising is the best way to catch customer attention. The companies are advertising their product because that's how they give out their positive or negative impression .In order to be successful in the market , companies need to make an effective advertisement which includes all those four factors, needs , motives , perceptions and attitudes. For example , I was going to the work in the train and I saw the Macy clothing advertisement. That advertisement has very bright colors and it gave me a good impression. I saw two male models in that advertisement . Those two male models looked decent with that advertisement . I was really attracted by that advertisement .I wanted to be like those male models .In order to be like those male models I had to get that same dress. When I found those clothes , I wore them and they looked good on me .In other words the advertisement attracted me , which became my needs and when I wore the clothing , that's how the advertisement satisfied me . That advertisement covers my perception when I was looking at it . In that way , I had positive attitudes about that company.

Companies need to inform consumers about products available through advertising . However they have to make an effective advertisement which gives the consumers a positive impression . In order to make an effective advertisement companies have to consider the psychological factors of consumer behavior. An effective advertisement is the key to raise your business and become popular in the market.

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Page last updated on November 17, 2003